1月8日,上海市文旅局与上海市司法局联合发声:自2020年3月1日起,《上海市民间收藏文物经营管理办法》(以下简称《办法》)开始实施。

On January 8, the Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Culture and Tourism and the Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Justice jointly spoke out: Since March 1,2020, the Measures for the Management of Cultural Relics in the Folk Collections of Shanghai (hereinafter referred to as the Measures) have been implemented.

  这是全国第一部关于繁荣和规范文物市场的省级政府规章。针对社会对民间收藏文物鉴定有很大需求的实际,此次《办法》明确要求建立民间收藏文物鉴定咨询服务机制。从周一到周五,每天都有机构可以进行免费的文物鉴定。这一做法也逐渐形成“上海模式”。

This is the country's first provincial government regulation on prosperity and regulation of the cultural relics market. In view of the fact that the society has a great demand for the appraisal of folk cultural relics, the Measures explicitly call for the establishment of consultation service mechanism for the appraisal of folk collection cultural relics. Every day from Monday to Friday, there are institutions that can carry out free cultural relics identification. This practice also gradually formed a \"Shanghai model \".

  上海市文旅局局长于秀芬介绍,上海作为重要的经济、文化中心和东西文化的交汇地,一直以来都是民间收藏文物交易的重镇。据初步统计,目前上海有文物商店53家、经营文物拍卖的拍卖企业70家;涉及文物经营的古玩旧货市场11个,场内经营户1103家;涉及旧物、古玩(文玩)经营的互联网网站317个。

Shanghai, as an important economic and cultural center and the intersection of east and west cultures, has always been a major town for the trade of folk cultural relics, said Yu Xiufen, director of the Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Cultural Tourism. According to preliminary statistics, there are currently 53 cultural relics shops and 70 auction enterprises in Shanghai,11 antique and used goods markets involving cultural relics and 1,103 on-site operators, and 317 Internet websites involving antiques and antiques.

  《文物保护法》规定了除经批准的文物商店和文物拍卖企业两类文物经营主体外,其他单位或者个人不得从事文物的商业经营活动。而实践中,古玩旧货市场中的商户存在未经审批而从事文物经营的情况较为普遍,属于监管的“灰色地带”。针对这一情况,《办法》规定,古玩旧货市场内的商户可以由市场主办单位统一取得文物商店设立许可,依法从事文物经营活动,并明确了市场主办单位对市场内从事文物购销经营活动商户的管理责任,从而形成了政府管古玩市场、古玩市场管商户的监管模式。这项举措使大量的小规模商户可以在“阳光”下合法开展文物经营活动,必将大大激发市场的活力。

《 The Law on the Protection of Cultural Relics stipulates that no unit or individual may engage in the commercial operation of cultural relics except for the approved cultural relics shops and the two types of cultural relics auction enterprises. In practice, the existence of antique goods market merchants without approval and engaged in cultural relics management is more common, belong to the supervision of the "gray zone." In view of this situation, the Measures stipulate that the merchants in the antique and used goods market may obtain permission for the establishment of cultural relics shops by the market sponsor units, engage in cultural relics business activities according to law, and clarify the management responsibility of the market sponsor units to the merchants engaged in cultural relics purchase and sale business activities in the market, thus forming a regulatory model for the government to manage the ancient play market and the antiques market. This initiative enables a large number of small-scale businesses in the "sunshine" can legally carry out cultural relics business activities, will greatly stimulate the vitality of the market.

  与此同时,文物经营活动监管涉及市场监管、商务、公安、海关以及文旅局执法总队等较多部门和单位。最高法院、最高检察院、国家文物局等联合印发的《涉案文物鉴定评估管理办法》中只规定了对“文物犯罪刑事案件涉及的文物”的鉴定,未包括行政执法案件中涉案文物的鉴定。为解决此问题,《办法》明确,行政管理部门开展文物经营执法活动,可以委托国家文物局认定的鉴定机构进行鉴定,从而将涉案文物鉴定范围扩大至包含行政执法案件。

At the same time, the supervision of cultural relics business activities involves more departments and units such as market supervision, commerce, public security, customs and law enforcement teams of the Bureau of Cultural and Travel. The Supreme Court, the Supreme Procuratorate, the State Administration of Cultural Relics and other jointly issued Measures for the Evaluation and Management of Cultural Relics Involved in the Case only stipulate the appraisal of \"cultural relics involved in criminal cases of cultural relics \", not including the appraisal of cultural relics involved in administrative law enforcement cases. In order to solve this problem, the Measures make it clear that the administrative departments shall carry out the activities of law enforcement in the management of cultural relics, and may entrust the appraisal agencies as determined by the State Administration of Cultural Relics to carry out the appraisals, thus expanding the scope of the appraisals of cultural relics involved to include administrative law enforcement cases.

  而针对社会对民间收藏文物鉴定有很大需求的实际,此次《办法》中明确要求建立民间收藏文物鉴定咨询服务机制。从2017年开始,上海通过政府购买服务等方式,先后组织上海文物商店、朵云轩集团、上海市收藏协会和上海市文物保护研究中心四家单位,面向社会开展常态化民间收藏文物免费鉴定咨询服务试点工作。同时,上海市文旅局及时总结经验做法,制定了《上海市民间收藏文物鉴定咨询推荐单位工作规程》,形成了较为完善的民间收藏文物鉴定咨询制度。截至目前,四家推荐单位已累计接待文物收藏爱好者两万余人次,无偿鉴定文物藏品总数6万余件,受到群众普遍欢迎和社会舆论广泛好评。国家文物局对上海的此项工作予以充分肯定,并专门印发通知要求各省、自治区、直辖市参考借鉴“上海模式”。

In view of the fact that the society has a great demand for the appraisal of folk collection cultural relics, the Measures explicitly require the establishment of consultation service mechanism for the appraisal of folk collection cultural relics. Since 2017, Shanghai has organized four units, including Shanghai Cultural relics Store, Duoyun Xuan Group, Shanghai Collection Association and Shanghai Cultural relics Conservation and Research Center, through the way of government purchase of services, to carry out the pilot work of free appraisal and consultation service for the regular folk collection of cultural relics for the society. At the same time, the Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Culture and Tourism promptly summed up the experience and practice, formulated the \"Shanghai Folk Collection Cultural Relics Appraisal Consulting Unit Work Rules \", formed a relatively perfect folk collection cultural relics appraisal consultation system. Up to now, the four recommended units have received more than 20,000 lovers of cultural relics collections and appraised the total number of cultural relics collections without compensation, which has been widely welcomed by the masses and widely praised by public opinion. The State Administration of Cultural Relics fully affirmed this work in Shanghai and issued a special circular requesting all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities to refer to the \"Shanghai Model\" for reference.


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